Instead it is an explanation of visual structure, of the ways in which certain visual elements have been arranged and function within a composition. Strictly speaking, subject is not considered and neither is historical or cultural context. The purest formal analysis is limited to what the viewer sees.
Introduction The rapid development of information technology is paralleled by a tremendous increase in the use of visual forms of communication: The digital storage and transmission of images, the availability of video technology and its digital accessibility, the dissemination of visual surveillance technologies or the transformation from textual to visual forms of communication—such as the use of Powerpoint in lectures—turns visualisations in various forms into an integrated part of contemporary culture and everyday life.
From its early origins in the first half of the twentieth century within social anthropology, where novel technologies of register and reproduction of images were gradually incorporated into the sub-discipline of ethnographic film and, later, visual anthropology, research with visual technologies and on visual data has evolved into other fields in the social sciences.
Not only the startling expansion and improvement of visual technologies—miniaturisation, low cost, storage capacity, etc. Accepted as a subjective and reflexive form of qualitative data production, methods based on photography and video are now entrenched in major fields of inquiry, including sociology, health and nursing studies, educational research, criminology, social Visual art analysis cultural geography, media and cultural studies, discursive and social psychology, management and organisation studies, political science and policy analysis.
To the degree that visual data are becoming both the subject matter and the methodology of social scientific inquiry, the question as to how we can approach this kind of data in a scientific, analytic or theoretical manner gains increasing importance.
The FQS issue presented here attempts to address this challenge. They address the cultural meaning of visual data and relate to the Visual art analysis in which actors themselves interpret visual data. The majority of the papers included in this edition are based on presentations given at the "Conference on Visual Methods of Analysis".
This programme is dedicated to the improvement, development and dissemination of qualitative methods in the social sciences. In common with the conference, this issue focuses particularly on visual data.
By visual data, we refer to any kind of visual material, either produced by actors such as lay photographs or social scientists such as video records of social interactions that depend in their meaning and significance on the visualised records, be it diagrams, photographical reproductions or video-taped records.
Thus, they constitute an important part of the arts, and visual materials also play a central role in broadcast, print and new media—a fact that is accounted for by a huge body of studies in these fields. In order to narrow down the question as to how we may handle the analysis of visual data, we decided to focus exclusively on those studies in which the visual aspect lies at the heart of the analysis.
For this reason, we have not included media studies. In order to narrow the focus further, we address only two sorts of visual data in this issue: Therefore, the topic of the present issue needs to be specified as "Qualitative Methods of Video- and Photo-Analysis".
Although both these strands of research are preoccupied with the visual, and although they have a certain tradition of research, there is still little contact between them.
It is quite safe to say that Video-Analysis and Photo-Analysis exist in splendid isolation from each another.
Moreover, whereas Qualitative Video-Analysis has developed some kind of shared methodological principles, the variety of methodological approaches in the analysis of photography is so vast that a common ground remains to be established.
The goal of the afore-mentioned conference, as well as this issue, is to contribute to the development of such a common ground or, at least, to help to bridge the gap between the two. Both fields, we want to argue, are complementary in their deficiencies as well as in their proficiencies.
On the one hand, Video-Analysis is characterised by a strong focus on setting. The various forms of sequential analysis, practised with video, account for the situatedness of the visual, be it temporally with respect to priority or posteriority or be it spatially with respect to the environment or workplace.
As central as the setting is to Video-Analysis, its pursuit of that setting is located in the tradition of textual, linguistic analysis. Although this tradition is being questioned at the moment by the focus on "multi-modality", there is no decisive notion of the visual in Video-Analysis.
The contributions to this issue attempt to bestow a certain order onto this multiplicity. As determined as analysts of photography are to tackle the visual, the reference to the context of the visual datum, i. Where the datum is situated, how it is constructed, in which ways it is embedded in a context of action, mostly remains out of the focus of inquiry.
The contributions to this issue loosely collected in the section on photography amply demonstrate this diversity. They also exemplify the difficulties of establishing boundaries between the production and analysis of visual data.
Several of the contributions make an innovative use of multi-method approaches, which are centred on the visual in combination with "traditional" qualitative methods. The photo interview, subject informant photos and other forms of collaborative research, photo elicitation, or visual ethnography broaden the category of visual methods or visual research.
These terms bring together the uses of visual technologies photography and video, but also different forms of drawing and illustration or their outcomes—various visual data forms—within different types of research endeavours, as well as the specific procedures and means of its analysis. Before we over-exaggerate the novelty of this work we should not forget that photography has a long tradition of theorisation and analysis, which many of the papers underline and rely on in their case studies.
Admittedly, the papers in this issue demonstrate that a persistent and formative gap still exists. It is thus something of a quixotic quest, the collection in one issue that pursues the unlikely goal set in the title: The pursuit of this goal is fruitful not least in collecting the papers met along the way.
In the following, we present the contributions to this issue, stressing their respective input to the aforementioned theoretical and methodological issues.If you are an artist or an owner of art, you should be aware of a law protecting certain rights of the artist in and to his or her works.
These rights exist independent of the artist’s rights of copyright and indeed apply to the artist even if the artist is not the copyright proprietor. Visual Description.
The simplest visual description uses ordinary words to convey what the writer sees. First he or she must look at the subject – slowly, carefully, and repeatedly, if possible – to identify the parts that make the whole.
At Fastway Movers NYC, New Jersey, Boston & Miami, we understand that every move is heartoftexashop.comâ€™s why we give our services special treatment, in particular compared to other moving companies.
We are always trying to outdo ourselves by seeking innovation, using the latest technology, and having highly trained and qualified people for every service. Encyclopedia of Visual Art: All you need to know about painting, drawing, sculpture and architecture.
The Department of Visual Arts at Texas Woman’s University will educate and empower you to become a leader through excellence in the visual arts. Critical Analysis in the Humanities: Visual Arts This handout is designed for students in the humanities as well as those interested in contemplating the nonliterary arts, specifically those who are concerned with reflecting more deeply on visual art.