Traits are used to describe people and are what is preferred by the personologists. Many personality theories exist to characterize humans.
Sutherland and differential association theory, Freud and psychoanalytical theory, or Pavlov and behavioral theory. The Labeling Approach to Delinquency: State of the Theory as a Function of Method. Labeling theory is a theoretical concept that is well-respected throughout the criminal justice field, and is predicated upon the hypothesis that juveniles are more prone to delinquency Trait theory public policy implications labelled as delinquent or when placed into contact with the formal criminal justice system.
The article analyzes the labelling approach by developing a hypothesis for selective bias on the part of official decision-makers and the independent effect of social control upon delinquency recidivism. The results of the tests used to test the hypothesis discovered that juvenile recidivism is impacted by official labelling formal hearings of juveniles as delinquents, and this contributes to future delinquency.
The researchers offered future suggestions for, and examples of, promising lines of methodological inquiry into central but neglected dimensions of labeling theory.
Researchers' used literature review to analyze studies of juvenile delinquency which adopted a labeling approach or perspective. The objective of this study was to ascertain decisions made by officers when they come into contact with juvenile offenders.
Police officers have great autonomy and discretion when deciding whether a juvenile will be formally entered into the justice system for delinquency offenses such as statutory crimes. The researchers found that the decision to implement the juvenile into the justice system depended upon cues which emerged from the interaction between the officer and the youth, cues from which the officer inferred the youth's character.
What the researchers hypothesized has lead the research of minorities and juvenile delinquency for decades. The researchers discovered that police officers would treat minorities Negros differently when encountering them engaging in delinquency than how they treated white children for the same delinquency offenses.
This study used qualitative research design to interview self-concept scores of delinquent boys incarcerated in a juvenile facility using a cross-sectional design.
The researchers discovered that juveniles that had never been incarcerated experienced a significant decrease in self-concept scores after their first interaction with the justice system.
In reference to cases involving an increase in self-concept scores, a more troubling aspect began to emerge according to researchers as juveniles began to internalize their label as a delinquent with groups of juveniles increasingly involved in more delinquent behavior as they began to identify themselves with a delinquent value structure and a delinquent self-concept.
This research was integral because it showed the correlation between labelling juveniles as delinquents and juveniles seeing themselves as delinquents as a result of this label. The juvenile justice system commences a negative labelling process resulting is depreciated self-concepts for juveniles labeled as delinquents, which is the essence of the labelling theory.
Historical Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. The researchers in this journal article reviewed historical theories of crime and delinquency identifying four constellations of historical theories that explain crime and delinquency including history of social science explanations, positivism, constructionism, and post-structuralism.
Researchers' concluded that integrating social environments and human behaviors in historical explanations of crime and delinquency was mandatory for understanding delinquency. Economic Theories of Crime and Delinquency. These three frameworks included rational model, the present-oriented or myopic model, and the radical political economic model.
Researchers' provided hypotheses such as rational crime and delinquency wherein a juvenile chooses to engage in crime or delinquency by focusing on short-and long-term gains, which is debunked by most researchers.
In contrast to the rational model, the most widely accepted model for juveniles is the present-oriented or myopic model wherein juveniles only focus on the short-term benefits without particular concern for the long-term consequences of their actions because of their lack of mental development.
Sociological Theories of Crime and Delinquency. Researchers conducted a literature review of the most frequently cited sociological theories of crime and delinquency. Anomie theory, theories associated with the Chicago School of Sociology, and theories of strain, social control, opportunity, conflict, and developmental life course are all examined.
The researchers attempted to ascertain the inter-relationships and contexts of the major theoretical perspectives. The research article analyzes the relationship between labeling and teenage delinquency. The perceived informal labeling of the self is measured by researchers of by analyzing the effects of parent, teacher and peer labeling and contact with social control agencies on self-reported delinquency of juveniles.
Powers of labeling variables in relation to delinquency and drug-related offenses are confirmed. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association. This research paper analyzing stigma sentiments associated with juvenile delinquency and researchers found consistent support for the validity of the evaluation component as measures of these conceptions.
Modified labeling theory was the conceptual framework that researchers hypothesized would positively correlate with each stigma sentiment and the researchers confirmed that self-identities among juvenile delinquents contributed to delinquency.
We find support for this hypothesis on the evaluation dimension. The results of the study found that negative cultural conceptions associated with the category of "a juvenile delinquent" impact the self-meanings of individuals charged in juvenile delinquency court. Brezina, Timothy; Aragones, Amie A.
This article takes a separate theoretical approach to by offering the hypothesis that positive labelling has crime-facilitating wherein positive labeling has the potential to promote delinquent behavior under certain conditions such when positive labeling increases opportunity for delinquent involvement.
The researchers argue that youths could actively campaign for positive labels as a deceptive tactic to gain the trust of adults in order to overcome barriers to engaging in delinquency. Using literature review, the researchers provide quotes and interviews from other research studies involving juvenile offenders to illustrate their hypothesis.
This research article also offers a separate hypothesis for labelling theory by arguing that in areas where criminal occurrences are high and communities are severely disadvantaged, the impact of labeling is not integral in causing juveniles to identify with crime as a result of being labelled a delinquent because it is already normalized within these communities.
Researchers used personal interviews with twenty minority youth aged from high poverty urban neighborhoods, who experienced at least one juvenile arrest to illustrate their hypothesis that juvenile arrests carry's little stigma and do little discernible harm to self-concept or social relationships of juvenile offenders from these neighborhoods.4 REVIEW OF LEADERSHIP THEORY A review of the leadership literature reveals an evolving series of 'schools of thought' from “Great Man” and “Trait” theories to “Transformational” leadership (see table).
Theoretical Implications of Crime/ Public Policy Add Remove I have to create a description of the criminological theories; rational choice theory, trait theories, social structure theories, social process theories, social conflict theories, and developmental theories.
Important Research on Trait Theory of Leadership Later research on the trait theory of leadership includes: —Ralph Melvin Stogdill's studies suggest that leadership is the result of the interaction between the individual and the social situation and not the result of a predefined set of traits.
Start studying Chapter 5- Trait Theory. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The ability to form attachments, that is emotionally bond to another person, has important psychological implications that follow people across the life span.
Public Policy Implications of Trait Theory. 1.) Primary. To include definition of theory, explanation of how crime is interpreted according to the theory, summary of policy implications, example of public policy currently in effect, result of public policy.
Trait Theory Public Policy Implications. Paper Public Policy M. Phil Semester One Q Define the following terms. 1. Problem: A Sudden happening or a thing that is difficult to deal with or to understand.
2. Public Policy: Public Policy is the action taken by government to address a particular public issue. It is implemented by local, state and federal government.